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ALL ABOUT OSTEOARTHRITIS AND TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT

According to the National Health Portal Osteoarthritis is the most frequent joint disease that affects 22% to 39% of Indians. Furthermore, the study also states that R   adiological evidence of osteoarthritis in women over 65 years of age is at least 70%. The condition is common to both developed and developing countries. Medicographia has published an article on knee replacement and arthritis that states that the condition affects millions of people worldwide and at least 80% of them opt for a total knee replacement or TKR. Osteoarthritis is also considered as one of the most prevalent among chronic rheumatic diseases. Aging and routine heavy occupational activity (particularly to earn a living) are all strongly associated risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Incidentally, even young individuals can suffer from osteoarthritis, especially when it is hereditary.

What is OA or Osteoarthritis?

A naturally degenerative condition, osteoarthritis of the knee, wears away the cushioning that enables the joints, to otherwise move freely without any friction. When there is no cushioning, the bones tend to rub against each other causing friction. The lack of shock-absorbing cartilage can cause pain, stiffness, swelling, and inability to move. 

Causes of osteoarthritis of the knee :

While aging is identified as the primary cause of osteoarthritis, other factors come into play as well. As a person gets older, the healing abilities of the cartridge decreases.

Heredity

Individuals with a long-standing history of genetic mutations are prone to develop osteoarthritis of the knee. Inherited abnormalities of the bones that surround the joint, may also result in the disease.

Weight gain

Obesity is also one of the major reasons for osteoarthritis. The weight of the body rests heavily on the knees, increasing pressure, 

Gender

Studies indicate that women are more likely to suffer from osteoarthritis of the knee than men. Increased risk factors are observed in women over the age of 55.

Athletics

Prolonged long-distance running or playing soccer and tennis can result in osteoarthritis of the knee. Injuries should be avoided and regular moderate exercise is extremely important to regulate the joints.

Stress injuries

Depending on the individual’s occupation, repetitive stress injuries along with a lot of kneeling and squatting may lead to osteoarthritis. Lifting 55 pounds or more can lead to constant joint pressure.

Illnesses

Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis, and other metabolic disorders such as iron overload and the presence of excessive growth hormones, are at a higher risk of osteoarthritis.

Types of osteoarthritis :

Typically, there are four stages of osteoarthritis.

In the minor stage, lumps of osteophytes grow in the knee area and damage to the cartilage is mild. There is no visible narrowing of the space between the bones and no apparent cartilage breakdown.

The mild stage, the tissues seem to harden, and bones seem thicker and broader. Still, the space between the bone joints appear normal.

Moderate osteoarthritis occurs when some cartilage damage is visualised. Activities such as running, walking, bending, and kneeling can cause pain and discomfort.

At its most severe stage, osteoarthritis of the knee is debilitating where individuals experience extreme pain and are unable to move without any discomfort or pain. A significant wear and tear of the cartilage are envisioned in the x-rays.

Total Knee Replacement Surgery

A total knee replacement or TKR can improve the quality of your life almost instantly. Severe symptoms can be easily addressed and even provide patients with the best outcomes. More than 90% of the patients experiencing acute disability due to osteoarthritis of the knee have recovered completely. 

What happens?

The front of the knee is removed, and the kneecap is first exposed, after which the surgeon reaches out to the joint present behind it. Damaged parts of the bones are extracted, and prosthetic is placed. Thereafter, the joints are cleaned, and the wound is closed.

Advanced surgical tools and enhanced operative setups at SIMS Hospital, Nungambakkam ensure that the patient is mobile in less than 24 hours. 

Speak to Doctors at SIMS Hospital, Nungambakkam, for an appointment, today.

Ventral Hernia Treatment

What is a Ventral hernia?

A weak spot or hole in the muscles of the abdominal wall leads to looping of the intestine or forces tissue to push through the layer of muscle, manifesting ventral hernia. The location of a ventral hernia can be anywhere across the midline or vertical centre of the abdomen.

Types :

Typically, there are three types of ventral herniations, as described below.

Epigastric

Occurring in the stomach area, below the breastbone and above the belly button or navel, an epigastric hernia can develop both in men and women.

Umbilical

Appearing primarily in the belly button area, umbilical hernias are treatable and seldom serious. Improper closure of the abdominal muscle that allows passage of the umbilical cord leads to hernia.

Incisional hernia

Generally, evolving at the site of a previous abdominal surgery, an incisional hernia appears on the scar. There is no specific time frame identified for its development.

Causes and risk factors for ventral hernia

Surgical

An infection at a previous abdominal surgery site

Weakness at the site of a preceding incision

Failed surgical mesh placement

Unsuccessful surgical repair

Other

Congenital weaknesses of the abdominal wall

Weakness of the abdominal wall due to persistent strain as a result of

Obesity and overweight dispositions

Frequent episodes of coughing

Severe bouts of vomiting

Lifting, pushing heavy objects

Straining while urinating or during bowel movements

Lung diseases

Emphysema: Due to which the patient is unable to breathe leading to a strain on the abdominal wall

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD where patient experiences shortness of breath due to poor airflow

Enlargement of the prostate gland or prostatism causing the older male patients to strain while urinating

Loss of elasticity of the abdominal wall due to old age

Signs and Symptoms

In its early stages, ventral hernia seldom causes any discomfort. A visible bulge appears in the abdomen area, right under the skin and is tender to touch. When lying down, or when you push against it, the bulge may even flatten.

Patients may feel increased levels of pain when they lift heavy objects, strain during bowel movements or urination, or sit and stand for prolonged periods.

If the intestine bulges through the abdominal wall and is trapped, then the person might experience severe abdominal pain. The strangled portion of the intestine begins dying as it loses blood supply. This situation requires emergency care.

Diagnosis

Your medical and surgical history is first reviewed by the doctor before a physical examination of the abdominal area is performed. Thereafter, imaging tests are done including ultrasound, MRI or Magnetic Resonance Imaging and a CT or Computed Tomography Scan.

Repair of ventral hernia

Surgical intervention is the only treatment available for ventral herniation because the malformation does not resolve on its own. It can get worse over time. Patients may also experience serious complications when ventral hernias are left untreated for prolonged periods.

What happens during the surgery?

The hole in the abdominal wall is repaired and the muscles are brought back into position. Additionally, the shape of the abdomen along with its tone is restored.

At SIMS Hospital, we primarily perform laparoscopic and open hernia repairs.

Laparoscopic surgery:

About 7 sites are marked for small incisions to be made away from the area where the hernia is present. A laparoscope is inserted through one of the openings and a guided surgery is performed where a mesh material is placed to stabilize and strengthen the weak area. Since only small-sized incisions are involved, the surgery comes with lower risks of infection and better healing rates.

Open hernia repair:

The intestine and abdominal tissue are pushed back into place when a single large open incision is made in the abdomen in the herniated area. This type of surgery has reduced recurrences and quick skin closure due to dissolvable stitches.

At SIMS Hospital, Nungambakkam

Before operating upon you, our doctors will consider several factors such as your age, existing health problems, your medical history, size of the ventral hernia, skin required for repair, and presence of infection.

We tailor every ventral hernia repair according to individual situations, requirements, and the expected outcomes.

Treat your ventral hernia repairs, right here at SIMS Hospital, Nungambakkam.

anxiety

Anxiety

What are anxiety disorders?

Anxiety is the normal response to stress in your body. It’s a sense of fear or uncertainty about what’s going to happen. Going to a job interview or a speech on the first day of school will cause many people to feel scared and anxious. Disorders of anxiety are the most common form of emotional disorder and at any age can affect anyone.

But if your anxiety feelings are extreme, last longer than six months, and interfere with your life, you may have a disorder of anxiety.

What are the types of anxiety disorders?

Anxiety is a key component of various disorders. These include,
• Panic disorder: Having repeated attacks of fear at unexpected times. In fear of the next panic attack, a person with panic disorder will live.
• Phobia: over-fear of a particular object, circumstance or event.
• Social anxiety disorder: Deep anxiety in social situations of being viewed by others.
• Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Recurring irrational thoughts that contribute to common, repetitive behaviors.
• Separation anxiety disorder: Anxiety of being away from home or those who are missing.
• Illness anxiety disorder: Anxiety about your health.
• Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Anxiety following a traumatic event.

What are the symptoms of anxiety?

  • Rapid breathing
  • Restlessness
  • Difficulty falling asleep
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Increased heart rate

The signs of anxiety may be completely different from those of someone else. That’s why understanding all the ways anxiety can show itself is critical.

What is an anxiety attack?

Common symptoms of an anxiety attack include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Dry mouth
  • Sweating
  • Chills or hot flashes
  • Apprehension and worry
  • Restlessness
  • distress
  • Feeling faint or dizzy
  • Numbness or tingling
  • Fear

What are treatments for anxiety?

Anxiety treatment falls into two categories: medication and psychotherapy. Meeting a therapist or psychologist can help you learn how to use tools and strategies to cope with anxiety when it happens.

Medications typically used to treat anxiety include antidepressants and sedatives. They work to control brain chemistry, avoid panic attacks, and fend off the disorder’s most severe symptoms.

Alopecia

Alopecia

What is Alopecia?

Alopecia areata is a condition that causes small patches of hair to fall out. The disease occurs when the hair follicles are damaged by the immune system, causing hair loss. Sudden hair loss can occur on the scalp, eyebrows, eyelashes, and face, as well as other parts of the body, in some cases. It can also develop between instances slowly and recur after years. The condition can result in total hair loss, called alopecia universalis,

Causes of alopecia areata ?

Alopecia areata is an autoimmune condition. An autoimmune condition occurs when healthy cells for foreign substances are confused by the immune system. The immune system normally protects your body from foreign invaders, such as viruses and bacteria.

However, if you have alopecia areata, your immune system will attack your hair follicles incorrectly. Hair follicles are the hair-growing structures. The follicles are getting smaller, stopping hair production, leading to hair loss.

Symptoms:

Usually, Hair falls out in small patches on the scalp. There are often several centimeters or less of these patches. Sudden hair loss can occur on the scalp, eyebrows, eyelashes, and face, as well as other parts of the body, in some cases.

You can find hair clumps on your bed or in the shower at first. If the spots are on your head’s back, you may be noticed by someone. However, other health conditions may also cause hair to fall in a similar pattern. Loss of hair alone is not diagnosed with alopecia areata.

Some individuals may experience more extensive hair loss in rare cases. Usually this is an indication of a different type of alopecia, like:

  • alopecia totalis, which is the loss of all hair on the scalp
  • alopecia universalis, which is the loss of all hair on the entire body

 Prevention & Medical treatments

A family doctor, internist, or gynecologist may conduct a basic health screening. Dermatologists are physicians who are specialized in skin, hair and nail problems and can provide more advanced hair thinning and loss diagnosis and treatment. There are certain medical treatments,

• Topical agents
• Injections
• Oral treatments
• Light therapy

alcohol-abuse-and-alcoholis

Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

What are Alcohol abuse and alcoholism?

Abuse of alcohol and alcohol can lead to severe health conditions. Some disorders such as osteoporosis are aggravated by alcohol. It may contribute to some cancers. Alcohol abuse also makes other health issues, such as heart disease, difficult to diagnose. This is due to the way the circulatory system is affected by alcohol.

How does Alcohol affect a person?

Every organ in the body is affected by alcohol. It is a depressing central nervous system that is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream from the stomach and small intestine. In the liver, alcohol is metabolized by enzymes. However, a small amount of alcohol can be metabolized at a time by the liver, leaving the excess alcohol to circulate throughout the body. The intensity of the effect of alcohol on the body is directly related to the amount consumed.

What health problems are associated with excessive alcohol use?

Excessive drinking in the form of heavy drinking or binge drinking is associated with numerous health problems, including

  •  Chronic diseases such as liver cirrhosis (liver cell damage); pancreatitis (pancreatic inflammation); various cancers including liver, mouth, throat, larynx (voice box) and esophagus; high blood pressure; and psychological disorders. Unintentional injuries, such as motor-vehicle traffic crashes, falls, drowning, burns, and firearm injuries.
  • Abuse, including child abuse, murder, and suicide. 
  • If a woman drinks during pregnancy, such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, damage the developing fetus. 
  • The condition of sudden infant death (SIDS). 
  • Disorders in the use of alcohol.

Alcohol abuse treatment:

Some prescription medicines can be used to treat alcohol abuse by helping people to stop or reduce drinking. Once you’ve found a treatment that works for you, sticking to that treatment is important. Additionally, avoiding circumstances involving a lot of alcohol is helpful.

  • Do-it-yourself
  • Counseling
  • Treating underlying problems
  • Residential programs
  • Drug that provokes a severe reaction to alcohol
  • Drugs for cravings
  • Detoxification
  • Abstinence
  • Alcoholics Anonymous
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