Types Of Heart Diseases

According to a report published in 2018, India alarmingly rose in the incidents of heart diseases. Another research published in July of 2018 reported that poor lifestyle choices and poverty were some of the biggest drivers of the growth of heart-related diseases in the country.

Statistics [released as part of the Million Death Study project set up by the Registrar General of India (RGI)]

Cardiovascular mortalities – heart ailments responsible for 2.1 million deaths in 2015. 1.3 million cardiovascular deaths between the ages of 30 and 69. Out of the above, 0.9 million or 68.4% is attributed to coronary heart disease and 0.4 million or 28% succumbed to a stroke

What is heart disease?

Primarily, considered as the issues and deformities of the heart, a collective of all conditions and problems is termed as heart disease. While it is indicative of the heart’s inability to function efficiently, it can be worrying when you are diagnosed with a heart condition.

Types of heart diseases

Affecting different parts of the organ, heart disease occurs in many ways:

Congenital heart disease

Suggestive of deformities of the heart birth itself, congenital heart disease can be further identified as:

Septal defect is where a hole forms between the two heart chambers.

Obstruction defect is when blood flow is totally or partially blocked. 

Cyanotic heart disease, a shortage of oxygen around the body caused by the heart.

Coronary artery disease [CAD]

Aiding in the circulation of blood, the coronary arteries supply the muscles of the heart with all the required nutrients and oxygen. When the coronary arteries are damaged or diseased, primarily due to cholesterol-containing plaque deposits, they invariably narrow and do not allow the receipt of adequate oxygen and nutrients, resulting in CAD.

Arrythmia

Irregular or abnormal heartbeats occur when the heart loses its usual rhythm. Heartbeats are stimulated through the organ’s own electrical system and if these signals are interrupted or disturbed, then the rhythm is disrupted, as well, causing quickened heart rates otherwise known as tachycardia. When the heart beats very slowly it is known as bradycardia. Additional abnormal beats are identified as premature ventricular contractions. Finally, when the heartbeat is just irregular, it is known as fibrillation.

Heart attack

Also known as myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary thrombosis, MI occurs when the blood supply to the heart muscle, is completely blocked. A blood clot forms in the coronary artery, resulting in damage to the area of the heart, to which the coronary artery was supplying blood.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

The wall of the left ventricle thickens, making it hard for blood to be pumped out of the heart. A genetic disorder, this is also one of the leading causes of unforeseen deaths in athletes. There is a 50% chance that a parent suffering from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, will pass it on to the child.

Mitral regurgitation

Occurring when the mitral valve in the heart does not close tightly enough, mitral valve regurgitation also known as mitral incompetence or mitral insufficiency is experienced. The blood flows back into the heart instead of leaving it, thus resulting in the inefficient movement of blood through the heart.

Patients experience symptoms where they often complain of tiredness and breathlessness.

Mitral valve prolapses

When the valve between the left ventricle and the left atrium does not close fully, then it ends up bulging back into the atrium or upwards. While the condition is not life-threatening and treatment may not be invited, if the condition is seen alongside mitral regurgitation, then therapy may be inevitable.

Pulmonary stenosis

If the pulmonary valve is too tight, then the heart is unable to pump blood into the pulmonary artery from the right ventricle. To overcome this obstruction, the right ventricle must work really hard. While older children do not exhibit any symptoms, infants tend to turn blue due to severe stenosis.

A balloon valvuloplasty or an open-heart surgery may be performed to clear the obstruction if the pressure in the right ventricle seems too high.

Symptoms

While symptoms such as chest pain, heart palpitations, and breathlessness are commonly visualized, there could be other signs depending upon the nature and type of heart condition affecting the individual. Stressful events or excessive physical exertion can lead to angina in patients with underlying coronary artery disease.

Most common symptoms/signs of heart attack are severe chest pain associated with one or more of the following symptoms such as breathlessness, palpitations, sweating, nausea/vomiting, dizziness etc.

In older adults, and individuals with diabetes, heart conditions can occur even without any symptoms.

Especially if you are already diagnosed with a heart condition, reach out to experts at SIMs Hospitals, Nungambakkam for regular check-ups.

Musculoskeletal Disorders

Also known as MSDs, Musculoskeletal disorders, account for several conditions that require days away from work. It is also assessed that it can cost businesses billions, annually. Almost every industry including restaurants, hotels, and more importantly manufacturing, are at risk of MSDs. It is extremely important to identify and treat these disorders early to prevent people from being unable to work and saving them a lot of money outright. Workplace injuries account for most of the MSDs today. While laying down strategies for prevention, it is also important to understand the causes and symptoms of MSDs, in order to deal with the issue, effectively.

What is a Musculoskeletal Disorder?

Injuries and conditions that affect the movement of the human body or the musculoskeletal system comprising of tendons, ligaments, muscles, discs, blood vessels, nerves, etc. are known as Musculoskeletal Disorders – a term that is collectively used to describe the issue.

Repetitive Motion Injury, Repetitive Stress Injury, Overuse Injury and much more, are other common terminologies for MSDs. While the titles might vary, Musculoskeletal Disorder by itself points to one singular cause for damage that is repetition and stress.

Cause of MSDs

The primary cause of MSDs is attributed to the exposure of the individual to risk factors where fatigue outruns the body’s recovery system. Patients develop musculoskeletal imbalance and eventually, a disorder develops. Risk factors for MSDs can be divided into two – ergonomic or work-related and individual risk factors.

Ergonomic

The design of a workplace plays a crucial role in the development of MSD. When individuals work beyond the body’s limitations and capabilities, they are risking their musculoskeletal system. An objective assessment of the workstation will provide us with insight, whether or not, the individual’s recovery system will keep up with the fatigue as the job is performed.

A musculoskeletal disorder is imminent due to ergonomic risk factors.Work-related risk factors are further divided into high task repetition, forceful exertions, and awkward postures. These are considered as primary culprits of MSDs.

Repetition of Tasks

Controlled frequently by the daily and hourly production targets and work processes, tasks and work cycles can be highly repetitive. When combined with other risk factors, awkward postures including high force activities, and repetition of tasks can contribute to the advent of MSD. If the cycle time is 30 seconds or less, then the task is considered highly monotonous and tiresome.

Exertion with Force

Several work tasks involve high levels of muscle response, which lead to force loads on the human body. This increases fatigue, leading to MSD.

Postures

It is not unknown that awkward postures can be detrimental. These impose excessive force on the joints and tend to overload the muscles and tendons. Joint efficiency depends primarily upon its closest mid-range motion. When these are worked outside of the mid-range repetitively without providing it adequate recovery time, it leads to an increased risk of MSD.

Workers exposed to such forceful exertions, repetitive tasks and prolonged awkward postures, experience fatigue, and the body is beyond its ability to recover. The resultant musculoskeletal imbalance ultimately leads to MSD.

Individual Factors

As multidimensional beings, humans cannot be limited to a singular cause when it comes to MSD. Furthermore, this restriction may also hinder our ability to create prevention strategies that aid the multidimensional individual worker.

Work Practices

For individuals, risk factors of MSD are in the form of poor work practices including body mechanics, lifting techniques, etc. that attract unwanted stress and fatigue. Simultaneously, the body also loses its ability to recover appropriately. Excessive drinking, smoking and poor overall health habits can put individuals at risk of multiple chronic diseases including MSD.

Rest & Recovery

When fatigue outruns your recovery system, then MSD develops causing musculoskeletal irregularities. This is primarily because, individuals do not pay much attention to the adequate rest and recovery process required, thus putting themselves at a higher risk. Following this, poor fitness, lack of hydration, and improper nutrition routines add to the plight, again leading to chronic health issues as well as MSD.

Symptoms

Some of the most common symptoms of MSDs are:

  • Stiffness, weakness and pain – all of them often persistent.
  • Decreased range of motion – limiting mobility, dexterity and functional abilities.
  • Noises in the joints – where early diagnosis and treatment are not available, joint deformity may be visualised.
  • Inflammation – along with pain and impaired function, there is redness, swelling and warmth in the overlying skin area.

On a broader perspective, there could be associated impacts on mental well-being due to the individual’s inability to actively participate in social activities

Impacts of MSD

MSD can affect the following:

  • Joints – osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis
  • Spine – back and neck pain
  • Muscles – sarcopenia
  • Bones – osteoporosis, fragility fractures, traumatic fractures

Multiple systems in the body – connective tissue diseases and vasculitishave musculoskeletal manifestations (example: systemic lupus erythematosus)

Prevalence of MSD

Musculoskeletal conditions can affect anyone from adolescence to old age. It is prevalent across the life course and its impact is predicted to rise gradually as the risk factors for noncommunicable diseases increase. This is particularly true for low- and middle-income settings. You can also see MSDs occurring commonly alongside other non-communicable diseases in multimorbidity health areas

Common Disorders

Some of the most common musculoskeletal disorders are (To name only a few):

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
  • Tendonitis
  • Ligament Sprain
  • Tension Neck Syndrome
  • Thoracic Outlet Compression
  • Rotator Cuff Tendonitis
  • Epicondylitis
  • Radial Tunnel Syndrome
  • Digital Neuritis
  • DeQuervain’s Syndrome
  • Mechanical Back Syndrome
  • Degenerative Disc Disease
  • Ruptured or Herniated Disc

Prevention & Management

Most musculoskeletal disorders share the same risk factors such as lack of physical activity, obesity, poor nutrition, and smoking. Management generally requires specialist care and, in many cases, surgical intervention. Some MSDs can be resolved with primary care including psychological therapies, weight management, exercise, and other Pharmacological therapies.

There are specialised units for orthopaedics set up at SIMS, Nungambakkam. Speak to our staff for an appointment today!

Anemia

Anemia is a disorder in which you do not have enough healthy red blood cells to deliver enough oxygen to the tissues of your body. You can feel tired and weak if you have anemia.

Several causes of anemia exist, each with its own cause. Anemia may be acute or long-term, varying from mild to severe. Whether you believe you have anemia, see your doctor. It can be a sign of serious illness warning.

Anemia treatments range from taking supplements to taking medical procedures. Through eating a healthy, varied diet, you may be able to prevent some forms of anemia.

Types

  1. Aplastic anemia
  2. Iron deficiency anemia
  3. Sickle cell anemia
  4. Thalassemia
  5. Vitamin deficiency anemia

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of anemia differ according to the cause. If the anemia is caused by a chronic disease, they may be obscured by the disease, so that tests for another disorder can miss the anemia.

You may not have any symptoms depending on the causes of your anemia. When they occur, signs and symptoms may include:

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Pale or yellowish skin
  • Irregular heartbeats
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Chest pain
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Headaches

Causes

Anemia happens when there are not enough red blood cells in your blood.

This can happen if :

  • The body is not producing enough cells of red blood.
  • Bleeding allows you to lose red blood cells faster than you can replace them
  • Your body is destroying the red blood cells

Prevention

Many types of anemia cannot be prevented. But you can avoid iron deficiency anemia and vitamin deficiency anemia by eating a diet that includes a variety of vitamins and minerals, including:

  • Iron. Iron-rich foods include beef and other meats, beans, lentils, iron-fortified cereals, dark green leafy vegetables, and dried fruit.
  • Folate. This nutrient, and its synthetic form folic acid, can be found in fruits and fruit juices, dark green leafy vegetables, green peas, kidney beans, peanuts, and enriched grain products, such as bread, cereal, pasta and rice.
  • Vitamin B-12. Foods rich in vitamin B-12 include meat, dairy products, and fortified cereal and soy products.
  • Vitamin C. Foods rich in vitamin C include citrus fruits and juices, peppers, broccoli, tomatoes, melons and strawberries. These also help increase iron absorption.

If you’re concerned about getting enough vitamins and minerals from food, ask your doctor whether a multivitamin might help.

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to perform the simplest tasks.

There are 10 warning signs and symptoms. 

Loss of memory that disrupts daily life.

Challenges in the planning or resolution of problems.

Difficulty in completing familiar tasks.

Confusion of time or place.

Trouble understanding visual images.

New problems with words in speaking or writing.

Losing the ability to retrace steps.

Poor judgment

No involvement in social activities

How long can a person have Alzheimer’s disease?

The time from diagnosis to death varies — as little as 3 or 4 years if the person is over 80 years of age when diagnosed, as long as 10 or more years if the person is younger.

Alzheimer’s disease is currently ranked as the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, but recent estimates suggest that it may rank third, just behind heart disease and cancer, as the cause of death for older people.

Although treatment can help manage symptoms in some people, there is currently no cure for this devastating disease.

Prevention

Alzheimer’s is not a preventable disease. Nonetheless, a number of lifestyle risk factors for Alzheimer’s may be changed. Evidence suggests that changes in diet, exercise and habits— steps to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease — may also reduce your risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia-causing disorders. Healthy lifestyle choices that may reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s include the following:

  • Regular exercise 
  • Eat a diet of fresh produce, foods low in saturated fat.
  • Eat a diet of fresh produce, healthy oils and foods low in saturated fat
  • Follow treatment guidelines to manage high blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol
  • If you smoke, ask your doctor for help to quit smoking

Studies have shown that preserved thinking skills later in life and a reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease are associated with participating in social events, reading, dancing, playing board games, creating art, playing an instrument, and other activities that require mental and social engagement.

HIV and Aids

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that damages the cells in your immune system and weakens your ability to fight everyday infections and disease.

AIDS is a set of symptoms (or syndrome as opposed to a virus) caused by HIV. A person is said to have AIDS when their immune system is too weak to fight off infection, and they develop certain defining symptoms and illnesses. This is the last stage of HIV, when the infection is very advanced, and if left untreated will lead to death.

Causes of HIV infection

HIV is found in the body fluids of an infected person. This includes semen, vaginal and anal fluids, blood, and breast milk.

Other ways HIV is spread from person to person include:

  • Through vaginal or anal sex.
  • Sharing needles, syringes, and other items for injection drug use.
  • Sharing tattoo equipment without sterilizing it between uses.
  • During pregnancy, labor, or delivery from a woman to her baby
  • Breastfeeding
  • Through “pre-mastication,” or chewing a baby’s food before feeding it to them
  • Through exposure to the blood of someone living with HIV, such as through a needle stick

The virus doesn’t spread in air or water, or through casual contact.

Symptoms of HIV 

Most people infected by HIV develop a flu-like illness within a month or two after the virus enters the body. Possible signs and symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches and joint pain
  • Rash
  • Sore throat and painful mouth sores
  • Swollen lymph glands, mainly on the neck
  • Diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue

Treatment options for HIV

No effective cure currently exists for HIV. But with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. If you think you may have been infected with HIV or are at risk of contracting the virus, see a health care provider as soon as possible.

Hi, How Can We Help You?