Astigmatism is a common vision problem caused by a corneal-shaped error. With astigmatism, the eye lens or cornea, which is the front surface of the eye, has an irregular curve. This may change the way light passes, or refracts, to your retina. This causes blurred, blurred, or distorted vision. Farsightedness and short-sightedness are two common forms of problems with the way light passes through your retina. This is termed hyperopia. Near-sightedness is called myopia.

Who is at risk for astigmatism?

Astigmatism can occur in children and adults. Your risk of developing astigmatism may be higher if you have one of the following:

  • A family history of astigmatism or other eye disorders, such as keratoconus.
  • Thinning of your cornea
  • Excessive nearsightedness.
  • Excessive farsightedness.
  • A History of certain types of eye surgery, such as cataract surgery.

What are the symptoms of astigmatism?

The symptoms of astigmatism can vary from person to person. Many may have no symptoms at all. Symptoms of astigmatism include the following:

  • Blurry, Distorted, or fuzzy vision at all distances.
  • Difficulty seeing at night
  • Eyestrain
  • Squinting
  • Eye irritation
  • Headaches

See your doctor if you have signs of astigmatism. Many signs may also be due to other issues with your health or vision.

Astigmatism Treatment

Glasses or contacts may correct almost all cases of astigmatism. But if you have a mild astigmatism and no other vision problems, you may not need them.

There are two treatments for the common levels of astigmatism:

  • Corrective lenses.That means a glass or a touch. If you have astigmatism, your doctor will probably recommend a special type of soft contact lens called toric lenses. If your case is more serious, you may have gas-permeable rigid contact lenses for a procedure called orthokeratology. You’re wearing your glasses when you sleep, and they’re reshaping your cornea.
  • Refractive surgery. Laser surgery also changes the shape of your cornea. Types of refractive surgery include LASIK and PRK.

Irregular astigmatism is far less common and is associated with problems with your cornea, the front part of the eye.


Aphakia is a disease that doesn’t require an eye lens. The lens of your eye is a transparent, flexible structure that helps your eye to be focused. The condition is most common in adults with cataracts, but it may also affect infants and children.

What are the symptoms of Aphakia?

The main symptom of aphakia is the absence of a lens. This may lead to other signs, such as:

  • Blurry vision
  • Trouble focusing on objects
  • Changes in color vision, which involves colors appearing faded
  • Trouble focusing on an object as your distance from it changes
  • Farsightedness, or trouble seeing things up close

How is Aphakia treated?

Treating aphakia usually involves surgery for both children and adults.

It is necessary to have surgery as soon as possible for babies with aphakia, since their eyes grow very quickly. We will need glasses or special contact lenses, which they can sleep in and wear after surgery for long periods of time. Once they are about a year old, they can receive an artificial lens implant.

Adult surgery with aphakia also involves removing the damaged lens if necessary, and implanting an artificial lens. Usually done using a local anesthetic, the procedure would take less than an hour. After the surgery, your doctor can prescribe contact lenses or glasses to improve your vision.


Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque is formed inside your arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart and other parts of the body.

Plaque consists of fat, cholesterol, calcium and other substances found in the blood. Over time, the plaque hardens and narrows the arteries. This restricts the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body.

Atherosclerosis may lead to serious problems, including a heart attack, stroke, or even death. The exact cause of atherosclerosis is not known. Studies, however, show that atherosclerosis is a slow, complex disease that can begin in childhood. It’s growing faster as you age.


Atherosclerosis may start when certain factors damage the inner layers of the arteries. These factors include:

  • Smoking
  • High amounts of fats and cholesterol in the blood
  • High blood pressure
  • High amounts of sugar in the blood.

Plaque may begin to build up where the arteries have been damaged. Over time, the plate hardens and narrows the arteries. Eventually, the area of the plate may rupture (break open).

Signs, Symptoms, and Complications

Atherosclerosis usually does not cause signs and symptoms until the artery is severely narrowed or completely blocked. Many people don’t know that they have a disease until they have a medical emergency, such as a heart attack or stroke.

Some people may have signs and symptoms of illness. Signs and symptoms depend on which arteries are affected.


Treatments for atherosclerosis may include changes in heart-healthy lifestyles, medicines, and medical procedures or surgery. The treatment objectives include:

  • Lowering the risk of blood clots forming
  • Preventing atherosclerosis-related diseases
  • Reducing risk factors in an effort to slow or stop the buildup of plaque
  • Relieving symptoms
  • Widening or bypassing plaque-clogged arteries


Amoebiasis, also known as amoebic dysentery, is an infection caused by any amoebic in the Entamoeba group. Amoebiasis also causes colitis that may develop with diarrhoea and/or dysentery that may be acute or last more than 1 week. Abdominal tenderness and weight loss are common to amoebic colitis.

Amoebial liver abscess presents pain in the upper right quadrant. May not present with diarrhoea but will typically have a history of diarrhoea preceding it.

Symptoms and signs

Although only about 10% -20% of parasite-infected people become ill, the following symptoms and signs may occur in those individuals:

Early symptoms (in about 1-4 weeks) include loose stools and mild abdominal cramping.

If the disease progresses, there may be regular, watery and/or bloody stools with extreme abdominal cramping (termed amoebial dysentery).

If the trophozoites reach the intestinal walls, the initial signs and symptoms of liver abscess development (hepatic amebiasis) are symptoms of liver infection such as liver tenderness and fevers.

Other organs (for example, heart, lungs, brain[ meningoencephalitis]) can produce organ-specific symptoms and cause serious illness and/or death.Abdominal tenderness and/or stomach pain. Abdominal tenderness and/or stomach pain

  • Tenesmus
  • Flatulence
  • Appetite loss
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Anemia

What are risk factors for amebiasis?

Risk factors include,

  • Drinking &  Eating contaminated water,
  • Association with food handlers with contaminated hands,
  • anal sexual practices,
  • contamination of medical devices such as colonic irrigation devices,
  • malnutrition;

What are surgical treatment options for amebiasis?

Surgical treatments are required or indicated for treating amebiasis:

  • Gastrointestinal bleeding.
  • Perforated amoebic colitis
  • Toxic megacolon
  • Failure to respond to metronidazole after four days of treatment
  • Amoebic liver abscesses greater than 10 cm in size
  • Empyema after the liver abscess rupture
  • Amoebic liver abscess representing risk of rupture to the pericardium
  • Impending abscess rupture.
  • Percutaneous drainage by catheter can be lifesaving in patients with amoebic pericarditis


Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. It usually only affects farm animals such as cows and sheep. But it’s possible to get infected if you’re in contact with infected animals or products that come from them.


Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. It usually When you eat or drink something that contains the spores, like an infected animal’s undercooked meat, the symptoms might include:

  • Fever, chills
  • Swelling in your neck or glands and pain.
  • Nausea, loss of appetite, and vomiting.
  • Diarrhea that may be bloody
  • Headache, Stomachache
  • Redness in your eyes and face
  • Fainting
  • Pain and swelling in your abdomen

What Causes It?

Anthrax is caused by a bacterial form called Bacillus anthracis. The bacteria make spores, which are a form of the protective shell-living bacteria. Such spores can persist in soil for a long time, even years. If spores get into your body, you can get anthrax, break open, and release the bacteria, which cause harmful toxins (poison).


Before the levels of toxins and harmful bacteria within the body become too high for medications to kill, anthrax must be treated as quickly as possible.

Anthrax is standardly treated with antibiotics and antitoxins. The type of antibiotics will depend on how the infection occurred, the age and medical history of the patient.

Antitoxin therapies are currently being developed to target toxins released by B. anthracis rather than the bacteria themselves.

Recently, surgical removal of infected tissue has been successfully used to treat anthrax injection.

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