Gallbladder and Biliary Tract Surgery
Gallbladder stones are a very common and usually asymptomatic condition. Some patients have biliary colic, intermittent and often severe pain in the epigastrium or right upper quadrant and sometimes between the scapula due to temporary obstruction of the cystic duct by a gallstone. If the cystic duct impediment persists, the gallbladder becomes inflamed and the patient develops cholecystitis, an acute inflammation and infection of the gallbladder. The vast majority of gallstone patients are asymptomatic.
Some common ailments of gallbladder and bile duct are as follows:
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy : In this procedure the gallbladder is removed by minimally invasive surgical techniques. The procedure is done under general anesthesia. Four tiny slit are made in and around the umbilicus, which are called laparoscopic ports. Thin, long tubes or laparoscopes are inserted through these slit which magnifies the view of the area. Surgical instruments are used to cautiously separate the gallbladder from the liver and the bile duct and extract it via one of the ports.
Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration: This procedure is widely used in the treatment of choledocholithiasis and can be done percutaneously, laparoscopically or endoscopically.The approach is the same as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Four ports are opened and a awfully small gap is formed within the cystic duct where the gallbladder connects to the bile duct. Cholangiography is performed through the insertion of a thin tube. A balloon or small basket is used to retrieve the stones out of the canal.
Laparoscopic bile duct bypass: The outflow of bile into the intestines is blocked due to a stricture of the bile duct. Then the bile builds up in the blood and causes jaundice. Bile duct surgeries are very complex and difficult. Since the bile duct is located deep into the abdomen, the process carries longer incisions into the abdomen. Laparoscopy is used to remove the stones in the bile duct.
Resection of choledochal cysts: There are five types of choledochal cysts that can be treated through different techniques.